Ternary lithium batteries, Ternary vs LiFePO4 battery

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Ternary lithium batteries, which use nickel, cobalt, and manganese as their cathode materials, are widely used in small high-power batteries. These batteries are known for their high energy density, with the ability to store more electricity per unit volume compared to other types of lithium batteries such as LiFePO4 and lithium titanate batteries. Ternary lithium batteries are commonly used in high-grade electric vehicles like Tesla cars.


Ternary lithium batteries have a cycle life of around 800 cycles and a nominal voltage of 3.7V per cell. The working voltage ranges from 3.6V to 4.3V. The energy density of these batteries typically ranges from 170 to 200Wh/kg, and the internal resistance is less than or equal to 150mΩ. They have a standard discharge C-rate of 0.2C and a maximum continuous discharge C-rate of 1C. Overcharge protection voltage is set at 4.325±0.025V per series, while over-discharge protection voltage is 2.5±0.05V. Ternary lithium batteries can operate within a temperature range of -10 to 60℃, with a thermal runaway temperature of 250-300℃.


Ternary lithium batteries offer several advantages. They have a high energy density, allowing for the storage of more electricity per unit volume compared to other lithium batteries. These batteries also have a high voltage platform of 3.7V, providing greater specific capacity. Ternary lithium batteries exhibit good low-temperature performance, with a minimum temperature limit of -30℃. Additionally, they are lightweight, making them suitable for various applications.


Ternary lithium batteries have some disadvantages to consider. They have lower output efficiency compared to other battery types. These batteries also experience faster capacity decay over time. Safety performance is another concern, as large-capacity ternary lithium batteries can be challenging to pass safety tests and have a low flash point, making them susceptible to burning or exploding under certain conditions.

Safety Measures:

To enhance the safety of ternary lithium batteries, it is crucial to use a protection plate that effectively controls overcharge, over-discharge, short circuit, over-temperature, and over-current. While there are risks associated with these batteries, continuous technological advancements have led to significant improvements in safety.

Charging Guidelines:

When charging ternary lithium batteries, it is recommended to use the supporting charger and avoid leaving the battery on the charger for more than 12 hours. Excessive discharge should be avoided, and it is advisable to charge the battery until it reaches 20% energy left. Charging time should not exceed 24 hours, and it is important to separate the battery from electronic devices when not in use.


Ternary lithium batteries find applications in electric vehicles, electric systems, laptops, and other portable electronic devices. Their high energy density and voltage platform make them suitable for these demanding applications.

Storage Guidelines:

To ensure the longevity and safety of ternary lithium batteries, it is essential to store them in a dry and cool place. Avoid contact with metal objects that may cause short circuits. Handle the batteries with care and do not expose them to high pressure.


Recycling ternary lithium batteries is important to mitigate environmental pollution and conserve valuable metal resources. The recycling process involves discharging and disassembling the batteries, separating the cathode materials, leaching the positive active substance, and collecting recycling production.

By following the guidelines and safety measures, ternary lithium batteries can be safely used and contribute to various technological advancements.

Ternary lithium battery VS LiFePO4 battery

Ternary lithium batteries and LiFePO4 (Lithium Iron Phosphate) batteries are two different types of lithium-ion batteries, each with its own set of characteristics and applications. Here’s a comparison between the two: (Also read: Ternary Lithium Batteries: Pros, Cons, and Tips for Longer Life)

Cathode Material:

Ternary Lithium Battery: Ternary lithium batteries typically use a combination of nickel, cobalt, and manganese in the cathode material. The specific formulations may vary, but the ternary composition allows for a good balance between energy density and performance.
LiFePO4 Battery: LiFePO4 batteries, as the name suggests, use lithium iron phosphate as the cathode material. This material is known for its stability, safety, and long cycle life.

Energy Density:

Ternary Lithium Battery: Ternary lithium batteries generally have higher energy density than LiFePO4 batteries. This means they can store more energy in the same physical size, making them suitable for applications where compactness and high energy capacity are essential, such as electric vehicles (EVs) and portable electronics.
LiFePO4 Battery: LiFePO4 batteries have a lower energy density compared to ternary lithium batteries. While they may not offer the same energy storage as ternary batteries, they excel in safety and longevity.

Cycle Life:

Ternary Lithium Battery: Ternary lithium batteries typically have a good cycle life, but they may not last as long as LiFePO4 batteries under certain conditions.
LiFePO4 Battery: LiFePO4 batteries are known for their excellent cycle life. They can withstand a significantly higher number of charge-discharge cycles without significant degradation, making them ideal for applications where long-lasting performance is critical, such as renewable energy storage systems.


Ternary Lithium Battery: Ternary lithium batteries are generally safe when used and handled properly. However, their higher energy density and specific chemistries might make them slightly more prone to thermal runaway and related safety concerns compared to LiFePO4 batteries.
LiFePO4 Battery: LiFePO4 batteries are considered one of the safest lithium-ion battery chemistries. They are more stable, less prone to thermal runaway, and have a lower risk of catching fire or exploding.


Ternary Lithium Battery: Ternary lithium batteries are often more expensive to manufacture due to the complexity of their cathode material and the higher energy density they offer.
LiFePO4 Battery: LiFePO4 batteries are generally less expensive than ternary lithium batteries, making them a cost-effective choice for certain applications.

In summary

If you prioritize energy density and compactness, ternary lithium batteries might be a suitable choice. On the other hand, if you prioritize safety, longevity, and cost-effectiveness, LiFePO4 batteries are a compelling option. The choice between the two depends on the specific requirements of the intended application.

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