Is Ternary lithium battery safe? Ternary Lithium (NMC) Battery vs Lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) Battery

Ternary lithium batteries require a protection plate for added safety. The protection plate safeguards the battery during usage by effectively controlling factors like overcharge, overdischarge, short circuits, overheating, and overcurrent. This measure plays a crucial role in enhancing the safety of ternary lithium batteries.

Among lithium ion batteries, there are ternary lithium batteries, LiFePO4 batteries, and Titanium lithium batteries, etc. The majority of small high-power batteries at home and abroad use ternary cathode materials. If you are fans of Tesla, you may know that high-grade Tesla cars use ternary lithium batteries as their power resources. NMC=NCM.

TESLA Model Series EV Battery Cell Type

Although ternary lithium batteries can explode or burn, they are also constantly improving. A significant improvement has been made in terms of safety. There is a high demand for ternary lithium batteries. In recent years, ternary lithium batteries have gradually replaced other kinds of batteries. As long as you follow the instructions, you’ll be fine.

NCM vs LFP Security

Are you a little curious about ternary lithium batteries? It’s nothing to worry about. Today we mainly introduce ternary lithium battery and we will solve your all problems about ternary lithium battery.


What is Ternary Lithium (NCM) Battery

Ternary lithium batteries use nickel, cobalt, and manganese in their cathode. More nickel makes lithium and nickel mix, making Li+ removal harder, reducing capacity and cycling. Higher nickel means unstable Ni3+ proportion, reacting more with moisture and CO2, worsening performance. The name “ternary” refers to the three cathode metals: nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co), and manganese (Mn). Their ratios vary, creating different compounds like 1:1:1, 5:2:3, and 8:1:1. Ternary lithium batteries are named for their fixed compound materials.

NCM and LFP Different Chemical Formulations

Why we use Ni, Co and Mn in ternary lithium battery ?

It is difficult for Ni–Nickel to oxidize in air at room temperature because it is chemically active. Material with Ni ions has a higher volumetric energy density

At room temperature, cobalt does not react with water and is stable in humid air. The cost of cobalt is relatively high. Material laminar structure is stabilized, impedance value is reduced, conductivity and cycling performance are improved by coions.

Manganese is stable and does not easily oxidize or reduce. Material safety and stability are improved with Mn ions.

Safety Concerns with Ternary Lithium Batteries

Ternary lithium batteries are vulnerable to overheating or catching fire when damaged or abused, especially in high-powered applications like electric vehicles. These batteries have a lower thermal runaway temperature compared to LFP batteries, making them more susceptible to catching fire at high temperatures.

NCM batteries can easily overheat or catch fire when damaged or abused

The LFP battery burns normally after long time emitting smoke, without explosion or jetting flames

The NCM battery LFP battery smokes and then burns like a flamethrower and then a huge fireball forms

How to charge Ternary lithium battery?

Charging a ternary lithium battery, also known as a lithium-ion battery with a ternary cathode, requires following certain guidelines to ensure safe and efficient charging.

NCM Battery Fully Certified Charger (UL, FCC, CE, RoHS)

Here are some general steps to charge a ternary lithium battery:

  1. Choose the Right Charger: Ensure that you have a charger specifically designed for lithium-ion batteries and compatible with the voltage and capacity of your ternary lithium battery. Using the wrong charger can damage the battery or pose a safety risk.

  2. Check Battery Specifications: Review the manufacturer’s guidelines or datasheet for your specific ternary lithium battery. Note the recommended voltage range, charging current, and any specific instructions or precautions provided by the manufacturer.

  3. Prepare the Charging Environment: Charge the battery in a well-ventilated area with a stable surface and away from flammable materials. Avoid extreme temperatures, direct sunlight, or exposure to moisture during the charging process.

  4. Connect the Charger: Connect the charger’s positive (+) and negative (-) terminals to the corresponding battery terminals. Ensure a secure and proper connection to prevent loose or intermittent connections.

  5. Set the Charging Parameters: Adjust the charger settings according to the battery specifications. Set the appropriate charging voltage and current as recommended by the manufacturer. Some chargers may have automatic settings that adjust to the battery’s requirements.

  6. Monitor the Charging Process: Keep an eye on the charging process and periodically check the battery temperature if possible. Most chargers have indicators or displays that show the charging status or progress.

  7. Charge to Full Capacity: Allow the battery to charge until it reaches its full capacity. Avoid overcharging the battery, as it can lead to reduced battery life or safety hazards. Some chargers may automatically stop the charging process when the battery is fully charged.

  8. Disconnect the Charger: Once the battery is fully charged, disconnect the charger from the battery terminals. Safely unplug the charger from the power source as well.

It is important to note that these steps provide general guidance, and it’s always recommended to consult the specific instructions and guidelines provided by the ternary lithium battery manufacturer. Following the manufacturer’s recommendations ensures safe and optimal charging for your particular battery model.

How to store Ternary (NMC) lithium battery?

Proper storage of Ternary Lithium Batteries is essential to maintain their performance, safety, and longevity. Here are some guidelines to follow for storing ternary lithium batteries:

  1. Charge the Battery: Before storing the battery, ensure it is charged to around 50-60% of its capacity. This charge level helps to prevent over-discharge during storage while minimizing the stress on the battery.

  2. Temperature and Humidity: Store ternary lithium batteries in a cool and dry environment. Avoid exposing the batteries to extreme temperatures, as high temperatures can accelerate battery aging, while low temperatures can affect their performance. Aim for a storage temperature range of 15°C~25°C (59°F~77°F) and humidity levels below 50%.

  3. Avoid Direct Sunlight: Keep the batteries away from direct sunlight, as exposure to heat and UV radiation can degrade their performance and potentially lead to safety issues.

  4. Battery Enclosure: Store ternary lithium batteries in a non-conductive and non-metallic container. This helps prevent accidental short-circuits and protects the battery from physical damage.

  5. Ventilation: Ensure proper ventilation in the storage area to prevent the accumulation of potentially flammable gases, especially if you are storing a large number of batteries.

  6. Separate Storage: If storing multiple batteries, keep them individually or separate them using insulating material to prevent contact and potential short-circuiting.

  7. Regular Check-ups: Periodically inspect stored batteries for any signs of damage, leakage, or swelling. If you notice any issues, handle the batteries with care and dispose of them properly following the appropriate recycling guidelines.

  8. Recharge: If the batteries have been in storage for an extended period, it is recommended to recharge them to the appropriate voltage level before use. This helps ensure optimal performance and safety.

    NCM and LFP Storage Temperature: 15°C~25°C

Remember, it is crucial to follow the manufacturer’s guidelines and recommendations for storing ternary lithium batteries. Different battery models may have specific requirements, so refer to the manufacturer’s documentation for any additional instructions or precautions related to storage.

By following these guidelines, you can help maintain the performance and safety of your ternary lithium batteries during storage, ensuring they are ready for use when needed.

What’s Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4) Battery?

Lithium iron phosphate batteries use lithium iron phosphate as their cathode material, making them more stable and safer than ternary lithium batteries. The P-O chemical bond of lithium iron phosphate is relatively stable, decomposing only at very high temperatures of 700°C~800°C. Even if the battery is deformed or damaged, oxygen molecules will not be released, preventing violent combustion. LiFePO4 battery can withstand high temperatures of 60°C.。

NCM and LFP Different Chemical Formulations

Different Characteristics Curve Temperature Discharge Curve (0.5C)

Safety Advantages of Lithium Iron Phosphate Batteries

LFP batteries offer several safety advantages over ternary lithium batteries. They are less prone to overheating and catching fire, making them a safer choice for a wide range of applications. LFP batteries have a higher thermal runaway temperature, which means they can withstand higher temperatures without catching fire. They are also more resistant to physical damage due to the steel encapsulation of the cells, making them more durable than ternary lithium batteries. Lastly, LFP batteries have a longer lifespan and are more stable, leading to fewer capacity losses with each charge/discharge cycle.

Applications for Lithium Iron Phosphate Batteries

Due to their safety and durability, LFP batteries are increasingly being used in applications that require a high level of safety, such as electric vehicles, cordless tools, and medical devices. LFP batteries are less likely to overheat or be damaged by physical contact, making them a more reliable choice in high-drain applications.

Ternary (NMC) Lithium battery vs Lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) battery

Ternary lithium batteries and lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) batteries are two different types of lithium-ion batteries, each with its own characteristics and advantages.

NMC vs LFPIs Ternary Battery(NCM) safe? NCM vs LiFePO4 Lithium Battery
Here’s a comparison between ternary and LiFePO4 batteries :

I: The material used in LiFePO4 battery and a ternary Lithium battery is different.

II: A LiFePO4 battery is a 3.2V voltage platform, with a cycle life of more than 2000 charges.

III: The ternary lithium battery is a 3.7V voltage platform, and the cycle life depends on different manufacturers, different models and processes, and generally is 500-800 charges.

IV: LiFePO4 batteries offer better high temperature performance.

V: LiFePO4 batteries are safer.


In summary, while both LFP and ternary lithium batteries are popular types of lithium-ion batteries, they differ in terms of safety. Ternary lithium batteries have a higher risk of overheating and catching fire, while LFP batteries offer greater safety, durability, and longevity. As the demand for safer and more reliable batteries increases, the use of LFP batteries is expected to grow across various industries.

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