Comparison of Ternary Lithium Battery And Lithium Ion Phosphate Battery

The two main types of batteries used in electric cars are the lithium ternary battery and the lithium iron phosphate battery. These batteries are used in different applications, but their competition is most significant in electric vehicles. To compare their cost and performance, we need to consider the price of the car. Various research studies conducted by laboratories, car manufacturers, and battery manufacturers have shown that there are differences in energy density and safety between these two types of batteries.

Are lithium-ion batteries more durable?

While not in use, a LiFePO4 battery self-discharges at a rate of about 2% per month as opposed to 30% for lead-acid batteries. It can be completely charged in less than two hours. In comparison to lead-acid batteries, lithium-ion polymer (LFP) batteries offer an energy density that is four times higher. These batteries are readily available at 100% of their original capacity, allowing for rapid charging. These elements help explain why LiFePO4 batteries have a high electrochemical efficiency.

Businesses may be able to save money on their power bills by using battery energy storage technology. Batteries are used to store excess renewable energy for later usage by the company. In the absence of an energy storage system, businesses are compelled to purchase energy from the grid rather than using their own previously created resources.

The battery continues to deliver the same amount of electricity and power even when it is only 50% full. LFP batteries can function in heated settings, unlike their competitors. Due to the robust crystal structure of iron phosphate, which resists disintegration during charging and discharging, cycles are more durable and the material has a longer lifespan.

LiFePO4 batteries are improved for a variety of reasons, including their low weight. They weigh around 70% more than lead batteries and half as much as conventional lithium batteries. Gas consumption is reduced and maneuverability is increased when a LiFePO4 battery is installed in a vehicle.

Lithium iron phosphate batteries (LiFePO4 or LFP) provide a variety of benefits over lead-acid batteries and other lithium batteries. To mention a few advantages, there are better discharge and charge efficiency, longer life, no maintenance, optimum safety, and low weight. Although not being the most inexpensive batteries on the market, LiFePO4 batteries are the finest long-term investment because of their lengthy lifespan and lack of maintenance.

Ternary Lithium Battery vs Lithium Ion Phosphate Battery

The Distinction LiFePO4 and Ternary lithium batteries compare

We can’t really tell if LiFePO4 or ternary lithium batteries are excellent or terrible because they each have their own advantages and disadvantages. One battery that excels in both energy density and low-temperature resistance is the ternary lithium battery.

First off, due to the high voltage, ternary lithium batteries have an energy density of 240 WH/kg, which is more than 1.7 times more than LiFePO4’s 140 WH/kg. We concentrate on developing NCM batteries, which are currently divided into 111, 523, 622, and 811 according to different ternary material ratios, even though the performance of NCA (nickel-cobalt-aluminum) and NCM (nickel-cobalt-manganese) batteries is superior due to the lower thermal escape temperature, strict production requirements, high costs, and technology that is under the control of Japanese and Korean companies.

The second quality is resistance to low temperatures. The highest working temperature of a LiFePO4 battery is -20 °C, which is superior to the maximum operating temperature of a ternary lithium battery, which is -30 °C. The ternary lithium battery winter attenuation is less than 15% in the same low-temperature settings, which is much greater than the attenuation of up to 30%, which is more appropriate for the northern market. Because of this, BYD does well in the south, but it is difficult to get clients in the north.

A LiFePO4 battery has a much longer lifespan. LiFePO4 has an anticipated service life of 10 years since it may be charged and discharged more than 3500 times before it begins to deteriorate. In comparison, ternary lithium batteries have a service life of only three years and may only be charged and drained 1000 times. Their lifespans varied greatly from one another in this way.

Producing LiFePO4 batteries is less costly. LiFePO4 batteries have significantly cheaper production costs because they don’t include any precious metals. Comparatively speaking, ternary lithium batteries need cobalt metal, which has 70% of its deposits in the Congo, Africa, and costs 110,000 yuan/ton less than electrolytic nickel. The cost of imports has therefore risen.

Why are LiFePO4 batteries safer than traditional lithium batteries?

LiFePO4 batteries provide higher safety. There is little chance that LiFePO4 will spontaneously burn while being driven at high speeds or being charged quickly because the thermal runaway temperature that causes LiFePO4 batteries to fail is typically greater than 500 degrees, ternary lithium batteries are less than 300 degrees, and some high nickel batteries are even less than 200 degrees. The lithium iron phosphate battery is chemically stable and has great safety performance. The intrinsic chemical structure of LiFePO4 batteries doesn’t begin to degrade until temperatures reach 500–600 °C. Additionally, even if the LiFePO4 battery is damaged, no oxygen molecules will be released and no quick combustion would occur. The battery starts to degrade at roughly 300°C.


Ternary lithium batteries have higher energy density but lower safety, while lithium iron phosphate batteries have lower energy density but better safety. For example, ternary lithium batteries have a higher capacity of 3500 mah, while LiFePO4 batteries can only achieve 2000 mah in the same size. Ternary lithium batteries are similar to the well-known 18650 cells, which are 18 mm in diameter and 65 mm in height.

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